Several types of pneumonia can be distinguished based on the causative microorganism and the place of infection. Pneumonia itself is a lung infection disease that can cause air sacs in the lungs to be filled with fluid or pus.
The lungs consist of many small air sacs called alveoli. When pneumonia occurs, where certain microorganisms infect the lungs, the alveoli that are supposed to contain air can be filled with fluid or pus.
This causes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli not running smoothly, causing shortness of breath, coughing up phlegm, chest pain, even fever.
Types of pneumonia based on the cause
Based on the microorganisms that cause infections, pneumonia can be divided into several types, namely:
Bacterial pneumonia is pneumonia due to bacterial infection. This is the most common type of pneumonia, and the bacteria that most often causes lung infections is Streptococcus pneumonia.
You can get the bacteria that cause pneumonia if you breathe in droplets (small splashes of saliva) released by people with pneumonia when they cough or sneeze. Infection can more easily occur if you have a weak immune system, a history of lung disease, frequent smoking, or are recovering after surgery in the hospital.
- Atypical pneumonia
This type of pneumonia is still caused by bacteria, but the symptoms are milder than bacterial pneumonia. Because the symptoms of pneumonia are mild, sufferers usually don’t realize that they are sick. This condition is referred to as walking pneumonia (running pneumonia). Atypical pneumonia is generally caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumonia or Chlamydophila pneumonia.
- Viral pneumonia
Various types of viruses can infect the lungs and cause this type of pneumonia. Viral pneumonia usually lasts shorter than bacterial pneumonia and symptoms are milder.
However, sometimes cases of viral pneumonia can also be fatal, especially if the cause is the influenza virus. Children, the elderly (elderly), and people who have weak immune systems are more at risk of experiencing fatal viral pneumonia.
- Fungal pneumonia
Fungal infections cause this type of pneumonia. Fungal pneumonia is rare and is usually experienced by people who suffer from chronic diseases or have a weak immune system. Examples are AIDS sufferers, who have cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy, sufferers of autoimmune diseases, or organ transplant recipients who have to take immune system-suppressing drugs ( immunosuppressants ).
Types of Pneumonia Based on the site of infection
Microorganisms that cause pneumonia can be obtained from various places. Pneumonia acquired from different areas has different characteristics.
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)
Pneumonia that is obtained when someone is being treated in a hospital is called hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia. The reason for hospitalization does not have to be lung disease. All patients who are being hospitalized due to any condition have a risk of being exposed to bacteria while in hospital.
HAP is usually severe because the bacteria that cause it are often resistant (resistant) to antibiotics. A patient who is hospitalized is more at risk of developing this type of pneumonia if:
- Requires ventilator breathing apparatus during treatment
- Cannot usually cough, so that phlegm in the lungs and throat cannot be removed
- Having a tracheostomy, which is an artificial hole in the neck that has been fitted with a tube to help to breathe
- Having a weak immune system
- Health care-acquired pneumonia
In contrast to HAP that occurs in hospitals, healthcare-acquired pneumonia can occur in other health facilities, such as hemodialysis (dialysis) centres or outpatient clinics. Bacteria obtained from these places can also be resistant to antibiotics.
- Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
This type of pneumonia includes all pneumonia obtained outside hospitals and health facilities. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi can cause Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). One example of a CAP is pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary TB).
This type of pneumonia also includes aspiration pneumonia, which is a type of pneumonia that occurs when a person accidentally inhales food, drinks, or vomit into his airway. This condition usually occurs in people who have swallowing and vomiting disorders.
Not all cases of pneumonia are fatal. Mild pneumonia can often be treated at home using medicines according to doctor’s instructions. However, severe pneumonia requires intensive care in the hospital because it can end up being respiratory failure or sepsis.
If you experience symptoms of pneumonia, such as shortness of breath, coughing, and fever, see your doctor immediately. If you find that you have pneumonia, your doctor will determine the right treatment according to the type of pneumonia that you are suffering from.
To prevent pneumonia, you are advised to always maintain endurance by exercising regularly, eating nutritious foods, and not smoking. Don’t forget to wash your hands thoroughly, especially before touching your face, and get a vaccine for pneumonia if necessary.